Симптомы расстройства — синдром Геллера

Синдром Геллера – редкое, но очень серьёзное детское психическое расстройство. При нём ребёнок почти полностью утрачивает все свои ранее сформированные навыки.

Чаще всего патология фиксируется у 2-3 годовалых детей, однако отмечались случаи, когда расстройство возникало и в возрасте 8-10 лет.

Патогенез

Он неясен. Врачам удалось лишь выявить лишь некоторые закономерности, на основании которых происходит развитие заболевания. До его начала никаких тревожных отклонений в психическом развитии не наблюдается. Ребёнок понимает речь, разговаривает, социально адаптирован.

Главные симптомы расстройства

Латентное течение болезни проявляется в повышении капризности, агрессивности и тревожности ребёнка. Параллельно с этим он перестаёт интересоваться ранее любимыми играми и занятиями, не выносит даже минимальное их усложнение.

Симптомы, характерные именно для синдрома Геллера, начинают проявляться только через несколько месяцев. Они включают:

  • Резкое уменьшение словарного запаса ребёнка. Он прекращает говорить сложными фразами, употребляет лишь самые примитивные речевые конструкции типа «да», «нет», «иди», «принеси». Особенно ярко этот симптом проявляется у детей старше 5-ти летнего возраста;
  • Падение интереса к обстановке, людям, развлечениям. Ребёнок полностью равнодушен ко всему, что происходит вокруг;
  • Потеря ранее сформированных физических навыков: умения одеваться, пользоваться столовыми приборами, собирать игрушки и т. д. На завершающей стадии расстройства ребёнок теряет способность к удержанию мочи и кала.

Осложнения

Через 12 месяцев заболевание перестаёт прогрессировать. Осложнений не наблюдается, но ребёнок находится уже в таком состоянии, что о его социальной адаптации, как правило, и речи быть не может. Больному требуется постоянный уход. В самых благоприятных случаях он может смениться контролем. Интеллектуальное развитие хоть и идёт, но очень медленно.

Диагностика

Она начинается с посещения педиатра и невролога. Ребёнка обследуют на наличие эпилепсии, опухоли, травмы головного мозга. Когда эти заболевания исключены, его направляют к психиатру. Диагностика у этого врача включает:

  • Беседу с родителями, выяснение у них характера течения болезни, того, какие навыки нарушаются, регресса более чем двух сфер;
  • Наблюдение. Врач фиксирует симптомы латентной или уже начавшейся активной стадии заболевания;
  • Психологическое тестирование. Используются тесты пирамидка, прогрессивные матрицы Равена, «коробка форм» и др.

Лечение синдрома Геллера

Используется комплексный подход включающий:

  • Развивающие и коррекционные мероприятия. Они проводятся специалистами разных профилей и состоят из попыток восстановить речевые функции ребёнка, сформировать у него социальные навыки, скорректировать эмоциональные нарушения;
  • Психотерапию, семейное консультирование. Родителей обучают уходу за ребёнком, информируют их об особенностях заболевания, организуют психотерапевтическую помощь;
  • Социальную реабилитацию. Она нацелена на выработку у больного таких практических навыков, как умение одеваться, умываться, пользоваться столовыми приборами и др. Параллельно идёт коррекция поведенческих отклонений и эмоциональных нарушений. Развиваются способность к концентрации внимания и усидчивость.

Прогноз и профилактика

Потерянные навыки восстанавливаются очень медленно и не полностью. Только 20% пациентов при условии ранней и интенсивной терапии обретают способность к самообслуживанию, проявлению социальной активности и изъяснению простыми фразами.

Профилактика заболевания невозможна. Обусловлено это тем, что пока не выяснена его причина.

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