Учим ребенка определять время по часам

В какой-то момент ваш ребенок начинает сам определять, когда прошло 15 минут и когда наступило 3 часа дня. Но в связи с этим возникает много вопросов: когда это должно произойти, как правильно научить ребенка понимать по часам, стоит ли учить часы с классическим циферблатом, ведь они встречаются все реже.

Когда начинать обучение?

Знакомство с циферблатом для ребенка один из естественных шагов его развития, предшествовать которому должно освоение таких понятий как «скоро», «сейчас», «вчера», «завтра», днем», «ночью», «утром», «вечером», «зимой», «летом». Обычно ребенок сам сообщает о готовности освоить часы, спрашивая, что означают стрелки или задавая вопросы типа «а в 10 часов это как?» и обычно это происходит в старшем дошкольном возрасте – в 5-6 лет.

Зачем учить циферблат?

Специалисты придерживаются мнения, что учить циферблат непременно нужно: это основа для ряда математических и философских понятий. Кроме того, циферблат помогает освоить ощущение времени.

Ребенок должен периодически слышать примерно такие фразы, как «Через полчаса придет папа», «Давай узнаем, сколько кружочков можно нарисовать за 1 минуту», «Мультик идет полчаса» и постепенно научиться соотносить их с реально пройденным временем. После этого ему самому захочется увидеть, что эти 5 минут прошли, сколько осталось до прихода папы с работы, и как вообще взрослые разбираются в этом устройстве. Для начала ребенку достаточно знать, что существуют часы, на которых есть часовые стрелки и цифры – циферблат. Среди игрушек у него могут быть часики: будет легче, если ему будет знаком этот предмет.

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Подготовка к изучению. Игры и обязательные навыки

Перед началом изучения времени, с ребенком нужно закрепить, что такое утро, вечер, день и ночь, разговаривая о том, что делают по утрам и в каждое время суток. После этого связать повторяющиеся действия с положением стрелок. Например, периодически проговаривать, что мы встаем в 7 утра, показывая, как выглядят стрелки на игрушечных часиках в 7 утра. Этому помогают и игры: куклу или другую любимую игрушку можно поднимать «утром», или укладывать спать «вечером», передвигая стрелки на 7 утра или 9 вечера. Важно акцентировать внимание на том, что стрелки движутся только вперед и что за сутки большая стрелка обходит циферблат два раза.

До осваивания циферблата ребенок должен научиться считать до 60-ти. Сначала он должен знать однозначные и двузначные числа, записывать и называть их, потом освоить понятия «больше» и «меньше», дальше научиться считать пятерками, распознавать и точно называть числа от 1 до 12, уметь написать числа, кратные 5. Справиться с этим отлично помогают стишки и игры.

Изучение циферблата

Для изучения лучше взять рабочие часы со стандартным циферблатом – с делениями, ярко выраженными маленькой (толстой и короткой) часовой, большой (длинной и более тонкой) минутной и тоненькой секундной стрелками.

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Изучение представляет собой серию игр, в процессе которых закрепляются теоретические знания:

  • В одной минуте 60 секунд. Наблюдение, как секундная стрелка обходит весь циферблат, счет вслух до 60-ти.
  • Один час – это 60 минут.
  • Что значит ровно 5 часов, ровно 10 часов и т.д.
  • Что значит единичка, двойка, тройка и т.д. на циферблате.
  • Наглядное изучение понятий: половина, четверть, без четверти, 20 минут, без 20-ти и т.д.
  • Изучение минут, не кратных 5-ти.

Закрепление знаний будет эффективнее со специальными игрушками и развлекательными задачками.

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Важно не спешить, запастись терпением, дать возможность ребенку усвоить полученные знания и закрепить навыки. Психологи и педагоги не рекомендуют продолжать изучение, прежде чем надежно усвоены предыдущие знания.

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