Как научить ребенка выговаривать буквы «Ш» и «Ж»?

Дефект произношения звуков «Ж» и «Ш», именуемый сигматизмом, в наибольшей степени распространен у деток дошкольного возраста. Поскольку нарушения дикции создают «барьер» в общении ребенка со сверстниками, замедляют подготовку к грамоте и могут повлечь сопутствующие проблемы, такие как психологические комплексы, стоит уделить особое внимание их скорейшему исправлению.

Почему возникают проблемы с произношением букв «Ш» и «Ж»

На сегодняшний день существует масса причин, по которым у детей появляются речевые патологии, в том числе с произношением шипящих:

  • трудная беременность, родовые травмы и внутриутробные инфекции;
  • образец неправильной речи в ближайшем окружении ребенка (так называемое «сюсюканье»  или дефект речи у взрослого человека);
  • вредные привычки (например, привычка сосать пальцы, продолжительное использование соски);
  • недостаточное развитие фонематического слуха (дифференциация звуков);
  • дефекты речевых органов ребенка (нетипичное строение зубов и челюстей, короткая уздечка языка, высокое узкое твердое нёбо, расщелина верхней губы), требующие также вмешательства ортодонта или хирурга-стоматолога.

Как проверить уровень произношение «Ш» и «Ж» у ребенка без логопеда

Проверка речи ребенка в домашних условиях происходит по определенному алгоритму, идентичному тому, который использует врач-логопед. При этом необходимо тщательно наблюдать за малышом и постараться определить причину искажения дикции.

Первый шаг – произношение звуков «Ж» и «Ш» по-отдельности, родитель может прибегнуть к игровой форме и попросить ребенка зашипеть как змея: «Ш-ш-ш» и пожужжать как пчелка: «Ж-ж-ж», так малыш сможет медленно произнести звук.

Следующий этап представляет собой проверку произношения звука в слогах. Причем звуки «Ж» и «Ш» должны располагаться в начале, середине и конце слога (жи-ши, жу-шу, аш-аж, кыш, вжик).

После этого можно переходить к произношению целых слов. Для того чтобы не ребенок не потерял интерес рекомендуется использовать изображения предметов на заданный звук (жираф, шуба, солнышко, шишка, жук, машинка и т. п.). Идентично прошлому шагу необходимо выбирать такие слова, чтобы проблемные звуки находились в различных позициях (в начале, середине и конце слова).

Заключительный этап – проверка звука в предложении, включающем в себя несколько слов с исследуемыми звуками. Оптимальный вариант – чистоговорки и скороговорки («Кукушка кукушонку…», «Шла Саша…», «Тише, мыши, не шумите!…» и другие).

Основные методы постановки звуков «Ш» и «Ж»

Постановка звука «Ш» не вызовет затруднений, если ребенок овладел произношением звука «С». Звук «Ж» ставится на базе звука «Ш» включением голоса. Однако не стоит пренебрегать консультацией специалиста. Логопед обследует речь и даст наиболее точные рекомендации по исправлению дефектов в домашних условиях. Рассмотрим ключевые моменты постановки звуков «Ж» и «Ш».

Первый этап является подготовительным и заключается в тренировке дыхания. Существует несколько игровых упражнений, например, «забей мяч в ворота» (необходимо сделать небольшой мячик из ваты и соорудить ворота на столе, цель – дуть на ватный шарик так, чтобы он влетел в ворота) или «снежинка на носу» (маленький кусочек ваты необходимо положить на нос и правильными движениями челюсти сдуть: широкая улыбка, язык на верхней губе).

Второй шаг – гимнастка. Для языка: упражнение «вкусное варенье» (нижняя губа влево и вправо облизывается языком), «тик-так» (кончик языка двигается от одного уголка губ к другому, подражая движению маятника часов), «веселые качельки» (кончик языка дотрагивается попеременно верхних и нижних зубов). Для губ: упражнение «улыбка» (в течение пяти секунд необходимо широко улыбаться, чтобы были видны все передние зубки), «хоботок» или «трубочка» (губы вытягиваются как при произношении звука «У»). Все упражнения выполняются не более 10 раз.

После чего можно переходить к постановке шипящих. Закрепление звука в слогах (ша-шо-шу, ше-ши, жа-жу-жи, аш-аж), словах (шапка, шина, стриж, уж, малыш, каша) и предложениях («Метил в лукошко – попал в окошко», «На окошке крошку-мошку ловко ловит лапой кошка», «У ежа — ежата, у ужа — ужата», «Не живут ужи, где живут ежи»).

Не забывайте об играх, картинках, использовании игрушек и всевозможных предметов, пословицах, разучивании коротких стишков – так ребенок не потеряет интерес к процессу. И самое главное – не спешите и не стремитесь добиться результата за один день, данный процесс весьма продолжительный.

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