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Как научить ребенка скорочтению?

 

Проблемы с успеваемостью начинаются с первых классов, а основа последующих успехов закладывается в дошкольном возрасте. С плохой техникой чтения своих детей часто сталкиваются родители. Прочтение по слогам приводит к затягиванию процесса обучения, к длительному выполнению заданий и в конечном итоге – плохой успеваемости.

По принятым нормам к четвертому классу ребенку нужно уметь прочесть 180 слов в минуту, при этом он должен понять смысл и суть предложенного текста.

Как и когда можно приступать к обучению ребенка скорочтению?

Действенным способом решения проблемы является особая методика, называемая «скорочтением», согласно которой за короткое время ребенок максимально усваивает прочитанное.

Принцип этой науки построен на полном подавлении внутреннего проговаривания. Специалисты рекомендуют начинать над ней работать не ранее 10 лет. Именно в этом возрасте школьники начальных классов хорошо запоминают информацию, которая по скорости совпадает с простой речью.

speedreading_orig

Главной ошибкой родителей является предъявление норм и требованиям детям, которые с этим плохо справляются. Не рекомендуют принуждать детей прочитывать за один раз много страниц, так как это чревато сопротивлением с их стороны, замкнутостью, нежеланием учиться,

В папах и мамах дети должны видеть помощника и друга. К примеру, если в школе дали прочитать несколько страниц текста, а для вашего ученика это сложно, попробуйте читать поочередно т.е. давать своему ребенку время на отдых.

Методика обучения скорочтению шаг за шагом

Приемов этой науки, курсов, школ достаточно много и выбрать нужно тот вариант, который будет интересен вашему ученику.

Обучение предполагает:

  • Развитие памяти, внимания, логики, предугадывание;
  • Постепенную работу над отрывком на 60-80, 120-180 слов;
  • Чтение наоборот;
  • Изучение трех таблиц 1-2-раза в день;
  • Пересказывание маленьких отрывков;
  • Мелкую моторику.

Чтобы научиться читать правильно, необходимо ввести тренировки: утром нарабатывать текст, вечером – закреплять. Первая проводится до 30 минут, вторая – не более 15.

Для оценки навыков чтения можно использовать метроном, следуя пунктам:

  • Найти новый текст;
  • Задать прибору малую скорость;
  • Стараться читать так, чтобы удар метронома совпадал с прочитанным словом;
  • Постепенно увеличивать скорость прибора.

Основные приемы быстрого чтения

  • Существуют специальные упражнения такие как, например, таблица «Шульте», которая позволяет зрительно охватить сразу нескольких слов или абзацев. Освоив ее, обучающийся при одной фиксации, может увидеть большое количество информации;
  • Не останавливаться, не возвращаться назад к предыдущим словам;
  • Не фокусироваться на малоинтересном тексте;
  • Пропускать неполезную информацию и выделять полезную и эффективную;
  • Отказаться от визуального чтения и научиться артикулировать.

Освоение навыков скоростного чтения включает в себя тренировку общей и зрительной памяти, внимания, анализ состава слова, написание коротких диктантов, по отдельному фрагменту придумывать логическое окончание и т.д.

Такой эффективный способ дает ребенку не только бегло и осознано воспринимать содержание, не проговаривать прочитанное вслух, не артикулировать, но и заниматься тем, что нравится, причем с удовольствием.

Поощряйте своих детей, хвалите, радуйтесь их успехам, отмечайте победы в освоении скорочтения. Показывайте это наглядно, повесив над столом, специальный плакат ежедневных достижений. Каждодневный труд и правильное выполнение всех правил обязательно приведут к желаемому успеху.

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