Риниты у детей: какие бывают и как правильно лечить

Одним из симптомов детских ОРВИ и других болезней является насморк или ринит. Сам насморк появляется как защита носоглотки от раздражителей типа вирусов, болезнетворных микробов, аллергенов. У заболевшего ребенка начинает вырабатываться слизь, появляются чиханье и отеки. Часто ринит сопровождается заболеваниями горла.

Доктора различают следующие виды насморка у детей:

  • хронический;
  • аллергический;
  • вазомоторный;
  • гонорейный;
  • инфекционный;
  • медикаментозный.

Виды детского ринита различаются характеристиками и симптоматикой.

Хронический детский ринит

Хронический ринит может не иметь ярко выраженных симптомов. Он протекает незаметно. В дневное время ребенок выглядит здоровым, имеет хороший аппетит и активность. Однако в ночное время его нос закладывает, в результате чего дыхание становится тяжелым. От хронического ринита может воспалится ухо. Доктора лечат это заболевание посредством вяжущих или прижигающих спреев, а также назальных капель.

Аллергический детский ринит

Возникновение аллергического насморка у ребенка связывают с проникновением в ослабленный детский организм какого-то аллергена. Такой ринит возникает внезапно. Ребенок начинает чихать, возникает отек носовых путей, дыхание становится затрудненным, появляется прозрачная слизь и слезотечение. Этот вид ринита чаще всего возникает в определенный сезон как реакция детского организма на цветение, пыльцу. Иногда аллергический ринит появляется у ребенка после приема определенной пищи, например, яиц, меда, цитрусовых, шоколадных конфет. Аллергический насморк может спровоцировать отек Квинке или крапивницу. Если заболевание не лечить, то в носовой полости ребенка начнут расти полипы. ЛОР-доктора работают вкупе с врачами-аллергологами. У ребенка необходимо взять пробы на аллерген, чтобы исключить возможность повторного заболевания. Аллергический ринит лечат назальными спреями и противоаллергическими медикаментами.

Вазомоторный детский ринит

Вазомоторный ринит в основном атакует детей с ослабленной иммунной системой. Чтобы ребенок не болел так часто, доктора рекомендуют родителям укреплять детский иммунитет, закалять ребенка, в сезон простудных заболеваний дополнять их питание различными БАДами и витаминными комплексами. Болезненным детям необходимо давать чаи из эхинацеи, цитрусовые фрукты, мед, орехи. Необходимо лишь исключить возможность появления аллергии. Помещение, в котором находится ребенок нужно часто проветривать и увлажнять с помощью специальных приборов. Усилить сопротивляемость вирусам можно с помощью зарядкой, плавания в бассейне, частых прогулок на свежем воздухе. Вазомоторный детский ринит проще предупредить, чем лечить. В случае заболевания доктора выписывают детям назальные капли, прогревания, таблетки или сиропы от насморка.

Гонорейный детский ринит

Для младенцев характерен гонорейный ринит. Взрослые им болеют редко. Заболевание часто сопровождается поражением конъюктивального глазного мешка. Младенцы заражаются в процессе родов. Через пару дней можно наблюдать возникновение излишней отечности, покраснение носа, серозно-геморрагические гнойные выделения. При наступлении гонорейного ринита младенцы отказываются от материнской груди, им становится трудно дышать. Доктора лечат гонорейный детский насморк с помощью антибиотиков, сульфаниламидов и пенициллина. Для облегчения дыхания младенцам закапывают 2%-ный протаргол. Выделения из полости носа отсасывают посредством аспираторов или груш. Глаза, полость носа периодически обрабатывают от излишков слизистых выделений.

Про инфекционный и медикоментозный риниты читайте в следующей статье.

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